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10 fotos icónicas de la historia del Muro de Berlín

© AP Photo / Markus SchreiberUn hombre coloca una flor en una grieta del Muro de Berlín
Un hombre coloca una flor en una grieta del Muro de Berlín - Sputnik Mundo
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Durante 28 años, un muro dividió en dos partes la ciudad de Berlín y separó a un sinfín de familias. Entre 1961 y 1989, unas 100.000 personas intentaron cruzarlo, 3.000 fueron detenidas y al menos 140 murieron por querer atravesar la enorme pared de la capital alemana; el símbolo literalmente concreto de la Guerra Fría.

En aquellos años, Alemania estuvo dividida entre el bloque Occidental, liderado por Estados Unidos, y por el bloque del Este (oriental-comunista), liderado por la entonces Unión de las Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS), en una planetaria disputa ideológica.

© REUTERS / STRINGERFILE PHOTO: East and West German citizens celebrate as they climb the Berlin wall at the Brandenburg gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Herbert Knosowski/File Photo
Ciudadanos de Berlín Occidental dan la bienvenida a los alemanes orientales que pasaron el punto de control de la frontera del Muro de Berlín  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE PHOTO: East and West German citizens celebrate as they climb the Berlin wall at the Brandenburg gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Herbert Knosowski/File Photo
© REUTERS / FABRIZIO BENSCHFILE PHOTO: Berliners take a hammer and chisel to a section of the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
Berlineses rompen con martillo y cincel una sección del Muro de Berlín después de que se anunciara la apertura de la frontera de Alemania Oriental  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE PHOTO: Berliners take a hammer and chisel to a section of the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
© REUTERS / FABRIZIO BENSCHBarbwire is pictured at the entrance to the museum of the original escape tunnel from West Berlin to East Berlin at Brunnenstrasse, discovered by former Communist East Germany's Stasi secret police in February 1971, during its presentation to the public in Berlin, Germany, November 7, 2019. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch
Policía fronterizo de Alemania Oriental observa a un hombre martillando una sección del Muro de Berlín en 1989 - Sputnik Mundo
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Barbwire is pictured at the entrance to the museum of the original escape tunnel from West Berlin to East Berlin at Brunnenstrasse, discovered by former Communist East Germany's Stasi secret police in February 1971, during its presentation to the public in Berlin, Germany, November 7, 2019. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch
© REUTERS / FABRIZIO BENSCHFILE PHOTO: An East Berlin citizen (C) embraces a West Berlin woman while an East German border soldier watches on at the border checkpoint Invalidenstrasse after the opening of the East German border in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
Ciudadanos de Berlín oriental y occidental se abrazan tras la caída del muro mientras un soldado fronterizo los observa - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE PHOTO: An East Berlin citizen (C) embraces a West Berlin woman while an East German border soldier watches on at the border checkpoint Invalidenstrasse after the opening of the East German border in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
© AP Photo / ANONYMOUSFILE - In this Friday, Nov. 10, 1989 file photo, Germans from East and West stand on the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. (AP Photo, File)
Alemanes de ambos lados se paran en el Muro de Berlín frente a la Puerta de Brandenburgo  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE - In this Friday, Nov. 10, 1989 file photo, Germans from East and West stand on the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. (AP Photo, File)
© AP Photo / Lionel CironneauFILE - In this Saturday Nov. 11, 1989 file photo, East German border guards are seen through a gap in the Berlin wall after demonstrators pulled down a segment of the wall at Brandenburg gate, Berlin. (AP Photo/Lionel Cironneau, File)
Guardias fronterizos de Alemania Oriental aparecen tras el muro de Berlín después que los manifestantes derribaron un segmento  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE - In this Saturday Nov. 11, 1989 file photo, East German border guards are seen through a gap in the Berlin wall after demonstrators pulled down a segment of the wall at Brandenburg gate, Berlin. (AP Photo/Lionel Cironneau, File)
© AP Photo / Lutz SchmidtFILE - In this Tuesday Nov. 14, 1989 file photo, a sight-seeing West Berliner carries his baby and uses a hammer and chisel to carve out a piece of the Berlin Wall. Many souvenir hunters come to the Berlin to break pieces off the crumbling wall. (AP Photo/Lutz Schmidt, File)
Un hombre con su bebé en la espalda usa un martillo y un cincel para tallar un pedazo del Muro de Berlín  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE - In this Tuesday Nov. 14, 1989 file photo, a sight-seeing West Berliner carries his baby and uses a hammer and chisel to carve out a piece of the Berlin Wall. Many souvenir hunters come to the Berlin to break pieces off the crumbling wall. (AP Photo/Lutz Schmidt, File)
© REUTERS / Fabrizio BenschFILE PHOTO: East German citizens crossing a newly opened checkpoint into West Berlin near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, December 22, 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
Ciudadanos de Alemania Oriental cruzando el Muro de Berlín  - Sputnik Mundo
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FILE PHOTO: East German citizens crossing a newly opened checkpoint into West Berlin near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, December 22, 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
© Sputnik / Yuri SomovEl muro de Berlín
El muro de Berlín - Sputnik Mundo
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El muro de Berlín
© AP Photo / Markus SchreiberA man puts a flower in a crack of the former Berlin Wall to commemorate the victims of the wall at the Berlin Wall memorial site at Bernauer Strasse in Berlin, Germany, Sunday, Nov. 9, 2014. 25 years ago - on Nov. 9, 1989 - the East-German government lifted travel restrictions and thousands of East Berliners had pushed their way past perplexed border guards to celebrate freedom with their brethren in the West. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber)
Un hombre coloca una flor en una grieta del antiguo Muro de Berlín para conmemorar a las víctimas del muro en 2014 - Sputnik Mundo
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A man puts a flower in a crack of the former Berlin Wall to commemorate the victims of the wall at the Berlin Wall memorial site at Bernauer Strasse in Berlin, Germany, Sunday, Nov. 9, 2014. 25 years ago - on Nov. 9, 1989 - the East-German government lifted travel restrictions and thousands of East Berliners had pushed their way past perplexed border guards to celebrate freedom with their brethren in the West. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber)
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FILE PHOTO: East and West German citizens celebrate as they climb the Berlin wall at the Brandenburg gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Herbert Knosowski/File Photo
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FILE PHOTO: Berliners take a hammer and chisel to a section of the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
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Barbwire is pictured at the entrance to the museum of the original escape tunnel from West Berlin to East Berlin at Brunnenstrasse, discovered by former Communist East Germany's Stasi secret police in February 1971, during its presentation to the public in Berlin, Germany, November 7, 2019. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch
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FILE PHOTO: An East Berlin citizen (C) embraces a West Berlin woman while an East German border soldier watches on at the border checkpoint Invalidenstrasse after the opening of the East German border in Berlin, Germany, November 9, 1989. On November 9th Germany will mark the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) in 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
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FILE - In this Friday, Nov. 10, 1989 file photo, Germans from East and West stand on the Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. (AP Photo, File)
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FILE - In this Saturday Nov. 11, 1989 file photo, East German border guards are seen through a gap in the Berlin wall after demonstrators pulled down a segment of the wall at Brandenburg gate, Berlin. (AP Photo/Lionel Cironneau, File)
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FILE - In this Tuesday Nov. 14, 1989 file photo, a sight-seeing West Berliner carries his baby and uses a hammer and chisel to carve out a piece of the Berlin Wall. Many souvenir hunters come to the Berlin to break pieces off the crumbling wall. (AP Photo/Lutz Schmidt, File)
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FILE PHOTO: East German citizens crossing a newly opened checkpoint into West Berlin near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, December 22, 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch/File Photo
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El muro de Berlín
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A man puts a flower in a crack of the former Berlin Wall to commemorate the victims of the wall at the Berlin Wall memorial site at Bernauer Strasse in Berlin, Germany, Sunday, Nov. 9, 2014. 25 years ago - on Nov. 9, 1989 - the East-German government lifted travel restrictions and thousands of East Berliners had pushed their way past perplexed border guards to celebrate freedom with their brethren in the West. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber)

Para evitar la migración de las personas de un lado a otro, el bloque oriental decidió el 13 de agosto de 1961 levantar un muro provisional y cerrar 69 puntos de control. Esta extensa pared de hormigón medía entre 3,5 y 4 metros de altura, con un interior formado por cables de acero para aumentar su resistencia.

Unas 100.000 personas intentaron cruzar el muro, 3.000 fueron detenidas y al menos 140 murieron en la travesía entre Berlín Este y Berlín Oeste a lo largo de 28 años entre 1961 y 1989.

Fue el 9 de noviembre de 1989 cuando los berlineses empezaron a derribar el emblemático Muro de Berlín por sus propios medios. Se trató de un día histórico, que marcó el fin de la Guerra Fría.

En la actualidad, la capital alemana conserva una pequeña parte del muro, que ha ganado colores y visitas turísticas desde toda parte del mundo.

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